Underground Mining Operation
Where the orebody is located underground at depth and requires a decline to be used.
In Hardrock mining autonomous loaders (boggers) have been driving themselves around levels since 2006, however still require an operator to fill the bucket with rock. These are the remote bogger operator jobs you see everywhere on seek.
This is where the exclusion zone rules were established, with each loader used on one level, which has to be barricaded off to the main decline, often with physical barrier.
They are creating a mine in Africa to trial autonomous underground trucks.
To do this they are using parallel declines to maintain an exclusion zone, one decline for trucks one for people and other equipment.
To use autonomous trucks on the decline with other traffic, would require a change to the exclusion zone rules.